Revisions Made to IPUMS-CPS
Below is a list of significant changes made to the IPUMS-CPS data, documentation, and extract system.
April 16th, 2014. Child Support Supplement variables are now availabe for select March ASEC samples. Select SPM variables have been updated. Supplement weights based on Census 2010 population controls are now available for CPS ASEC 2010 and 2011.
- 36 variables from the Child Support Supplement are now available for selected samples between 1992 and 2010.
- 8 variables from the Voting and Registration Supplement are now available for the November 2008 sample.
- For CPS ASEC 2012: SPMPOV, SPMWIC, SPMTOTRES, and SPMFEDTAXAC.
- For CPS ASEC 2011: SPMPOV, SPMWIC, SPMTOTRES, SPMFEDTAXAC, SPMFEDTAXBC, SPMEITC, SPMSTTAX, and SPMWT.
- For CPS ASEC 2010: SPMPOV, SPMWIC, SPMTOTRES, SPMFEDTAXAC, SPMFEDTAXBC, SPMEITC, SPMSTTAX, SPMFICA, SPMMEDXPNS, and SPMWT.
Expanded supplement variables.
Select Supplemental Poverty Measures variables have been updated.
In 2014, the Census Bureau updated the SPM public use research files to reflect three changes. First, the 2010 and 2011 files include updated tax estimates. Second, all files use a revised estimate for WIC (see SPMWIC for more information). Third, all files use Census 2010-based population controls (see WTSUPP for more information). See SPMPOV for more details on how these changes affect estimates. The old values are available here: Old SPM and Weights Values.
Supplement weights changes.
- Basic monthly samples were added from January 1989 to December 1993.
- EDPUPR was corrected in the 2008, 2009, and 2010 Education Supplements.
- INCLUGH was corrected in the 1996-2013 March samples. Codes of 2 were arbitrarily being changed to 1. The error has been addressed and the correct data is now available.
- DURUNEMP was changed to accurately reflect respondends who are NIU.
- IND was updated in non-March samples between 1998 and 2002.
- GOTWELFR was edited to idenfity Blank responses in the 1966 and 1967 March samples.
December 2nd, 2013. Computer and Internet Use varaibles available for selected non-March samples from 1997 to 2010. 2013 March ASEC Supplement tax variables, Supplemental Poverty Measures, and SHADAC data are now available on IPUMS-CPS.
- 31 new variables were added representing the Computer and Internet Use supplement. These variables include information on locations of computer and internet use (CIHHCOMP, CINETHH,CINETHP, CINTUSE, CINTOUT, CINTOTHH, CINTLIB, CINTSCH, CINTSWK, CISCHCMP, CIUSECMP), specific computer and internet activities (CICMPGAM,CICMPSWK, CIEMAIL, CIHFORWK, CINTCLAS, CINTFUN, CINTJBSR, CINTPHON), type of home internet connection (CICONTYP), reasons for not having internet access (CIHSNET, CINONET, CINONTDA, CINONTMO, CINTCOST, CISTPNET), the number of household computers (CINUMCMP), the year the newest household computer was purchased (CICOMPYR), and concerns about the internet (CINTEXPO, CIPRIV1, CIPRIV2), as well as corresponding data quality flags.
- Newly released data for noncash benefits values and after tax values that were withheld from the initial release of 2013 ASEC data are now available on IPUMS-CPS. These variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, PROPTAX, ACTCCRD, ADJGINC, CTCCRD, DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAXAC, FEDTAX, FFNGCAID, FFNGCARE, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATAXAC, STATETAX, and TAXINC.
- The summary health insurance variables and health insurance unit variables constructed by SHADAC are now available for March 2013.
- Supplemental Poverty Measures (SPM) are now available for March 2013.
- The Tobacco Use Supplement has been expanded to the May and August 2006 samples.
- DURUNEMP has been expanded to 3 digits and no longer has a top code. The new NIU code is 999.
- In the Tobacco Use Supplement, the variable TAMSMK now includes more responses by including three questions from the original survey as opposed to one.
- Corrected the CLASSWKR codes for "Self-employed incorporated" and "Self-employed unincorporated", which had been incorrectly reversed for non-March samples between 1994 and 1997.
September 25th, 2013. Posted new March 2013 data. A new variable for Asian descent is available. Official poverty rate variables are now available on IPUMS-CPS. Added variables and corrected variables for selected samples.
- The 2013 ASEC sample is now available.
- The data for all publicly-available files for the 2004 ASEC erroneously list HOUSRET values of zero for all observations. IPUMS-CPS has received the corrected data from the Census Bureau and return to home equity data for the 2004 ASEC sample are now available through HOUSRET.
- The Census Bureau introduced a new variable for the March 2013 sample to identify subcategories of Asian ethnicity. The IPUMS version ASIAN is now available.
- Variables for replicating official poverty rates from 1969 through 2012 ASEC samples are now available: OFFPOV, OFFPOVUNIV, OFFCUTOFF, OFFTOTVAL, OFFREASON. See the notes for Replicating Official Poverty for further information.
- Family type is now available through FTYPE.
- Insurance variables MOOP and HIPVAL are now available for 2011 through 2013.
- Full time and part time work status is now available in WKSTAT.
September 4, 2013. Food Security supplement variables available for selected non-March samples from 1995 to 2010. Tobacco Use supplement variables available for selected non-March samples from 1995 to 2007. Volunteer supplement variables are now available for September samples from 2002 to 2010.
- More than 100 new variables were added from the Food Security Supplement in selected months between 1995 and 2010.
- Select variables from the tobacco use supplements are now available for 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2007.
- The following variables were added for the tobacco use samples from 1995 to 2007: TAGESMK, TCHEW, TCIG100, TCIGAR, TCIGDAY, TDENAD, TDOCAD, TEMPPRG, TFREQ, THABIT1, TNRWT, TOPNADV, TOPNBAR, TOPNHOSP, TOPNMALL, TOPNMINOR, TOPNREST, TOPNSAMP, TOPNSPORT, TOPNWORK, TPIPE, TPLAN6, TRESP, TRULEHH, TRYSTOP, TRYSTOPN, TSINCEDAILY, TSMK2WK, TSMK6, TSMKER, TSNUFF, TSRWT, TSTOPDUR, TUSEOTHER, TWKAREA, TWKPOLICY, TWKPUBLIC.
- The following variables were added to the 2003 and 2007 tobacco use samples: TAMSMK, TPRICECT, TPRICEPK, TRYQUIT, TUBRAND, TYRSMK.
- Select variables from the September volunteer supplements are available from 2002 to 2010.
- Volunteer supplement items include variables describing volunteer activities: VLADMIN, VLBUILD, VLCOACH, VLCOMMITTEE, VLCOUNSEL, VLFOOD, VLFUND, VLGOODS, VLMENTOR, VLOTHER, VLPERFORM, VLTUTOR, VLUSHER.
- Volunteer supplement items also include variables for up to seven types of organizations and time commitments: VLTORG1, VLTORG2, VLTORG3, VLTORG4, VLTORG5, VLTORG6, VLTORG7, VLWTORG1, VLWTORG2, VLWTORG3, VLWTORG4, VLWTORG5, VLWTORG6, VLWTORG7, VLHTORG1, VLHTORG2, VLHTORG3, VLHTORG4, VLHTORG5, VLHTORG6, VLHTORG7.
- Volunteer supplement items also include: VLABROAD, VLABROADT, VLABROADC, VLMEETING, VLNEIGH, VLDONATE, VLRESP, VLHALLORG, VLHMAINORG, VLINVLMAINORG.
- Select variables from the November voter supplements are now available for 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006.
- The following variables were added for the November samples from 1996 to 2006: VOTEREG, VOTEHOW, VOREGHOW, VOWHYNOT, VOTERES, and VOTERESP.
- The following variables were added to the 2004 and 2006 November samples: VOTEWHEN and VOYNOTREG.
- VOREG95 was added to select November samples for 1996 to 2002.
- Available Education supplement samples now include 2008-2010.
- Select variables from the veteran supplements and fertility supplements are available 1995-2010.
- Veteran supplement items include VCOMBAT, VDISABLE, VDISRATE, VGULFWAR, VHOWLONG, VTAP, and VVIETNAM, and VLASTSERVE.
- Fertility supplement items include FRAGEM, FREVER, FRBIRTHM, and FRBIRTHY.
- Data for the 1992 through 2003 ASEC samples are now available for HOUSRET.
- Newly released data for noncash benefits values and after tax values that were withheld from the initial release of 2012 ASEC data are now available on IPUMS-CPS. These variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, PROPTAX, ACTCCRD, ADJGINC, CTCCRD, DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAXAC, FEDTAX, FFNGCAID, FFNGCARE, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATAXAC, STATETAX, and TAXINC.
- WTFINL for non-March samples from January 1998 forward was previously available only for those age 16 and over. The variable is now available for all persons.
- WTSUPP was changed in October samples from 2006 forward. The variable now includes the supplement-specific weight rather than the basic monthly weight. For more information, see this page.
- A topcode issue with AGE has been resolved in the 2004-2010 basic monthly samples. Beginning in 2004, ages 80-84 are coded as 80, and ages 85+ are coded as 85.
- Select variables for non-March samples are now available from November 2008 to December 2010.
- Select variables from the education supplements are now available from 1995 to 2007.
- The following education supplement variables are available for select months between 1995 and 2007: EDATT, EDGRADE, EDATTLY, EDGRDLY, EDPUPR, EDTYPE, EDFULL, EDVOCA, EDGED, EDYRDIP, EDYRDEG, EDREPEAT, EDRPTK, EDRPT1, EDRPT2, EDRPT3, EDRPT4, EDRPT5, EDRPT6, EDRPT7, EDRPT8, EDRPT9, EDRPT10, EDRPT11, EDRPT12.
- The following family interrelationship variables have been updated for select months between 2007 and 2012: ASPOUSE, PECOHAB, PELNMOM, PELNDAD, PEMOMTYP, PEDADTYP
- The following disability variables have been updated for select months between 2008 and 2012: DIFFHEAR, DIFFEYE, DIFFREM, DIFFMOB, DIFFCARE, and DIFFANY.
Expanded Sample Selection.
- For non-March samples 1994-2008, CLASSWKR is now fixed. In the previous version of the data, CLASSWKR was erroneously coded all respondents as "Armed Forces".
- WKSUNEM1 and WKSUNEM2 now assign values of zero rather than NIU to individuals whose values on WKSWORK1 are between 1 and 51 (or 49 from 1976-1995). For March 1962-1975, WKSUNEM2 is now zero rather than NIU if WKSWORK2 is less than six.
- We now implement year-specific topcodes for the following variables: TAXINC, ADJGINC, STATETAX, STATAXAC, FEDTAXAC, FEDTAX, FEDRETIR, INCTOT, INCWAGE, INCBUS, INCFARM, INCDIVID, INCLONGJ and OINCWAGE.
- For the March 2012 supplement, all supplemental poverty measure variables are now available.
New variables are now available on IPUMS-CPS.
- The widths for the following income and tax variables have been increased to accommodate changes to new topcoding procedures beginning in 2011: TAXINC, ADJGINC, STATETAX, STATAXAC, FEDTAXAC, FEDTAX, FEDRETIR, INCTOT, INCWAGE, INCBUS, INCFARM, INCDIVID, INCLONGJ, and OINCWAGE.
- Respondents under age 14 or 15 (depending on the sample) were previously coded to NIU on all income variables. We continue to do this in the cases where no income is reported; when non-zero income is reported, we now retain the original income values.
Changes to income variables.
- BPL, MBPL, FBPL: American Samoa and Samoa were erroneously grouped in samples January 1994 to October 2008. American Samoa is now grouped under US Outlying Areas, and Samoa is now grouped under Oceania. Albania was erroneously listed under Yugoslavia in all samples.
- INCOTHER: NIU and topcodes were previously assigned erroneously in the March 2011 and 2012 samples.
- UNION has been corrected for the basic monthly samples of January 1994 - December 1997. The code 3 (Covered by union but not a member) was missing for these samples.
- SHADAC enhanced health insurance variables (2000-2011) have been revised following revisions to Census estimates. Revised Census variables have not yet been posted.
- SHADAC enhanced health insurance variables are now available for March 2012.
- FAMUNIT, NFAMS, FAMSIZE are now available for the basic monthly samples of January 1994 - October 2008.
- The following Census Bureau SPM variables are available for the March 2010-2011 supplements: SPMTHRESH, SPMEQSCALE, SPMGEOADJ, SPMTOTRES, SPMCAPHOUS, SPMHEAT, SPMWIC, SPMFEDTAXAC, SPMFEDTAXBC, SPMFICA, SPMCAPXPNS, SPMWKXPNS, SPMCHXPNS, SPMMEDXPNS.
New variables are now available on IPUMS-CPS.
September 17, 2012. Posted new March 2012 data. There are new categories available for year of immigration (YRIMMIG).
- The 2011 CPS ASEC person and family data were re-released due to errors found in tax variables after the initial release. These variables are PMVCARE, ADJGINC, EITCRED, FEDTAXAC, FEDTAX, FEDRETIR, FICA, MARGTAX, STATAXAC, STATETAX, TAXINC, DEPSTAT, and FILESTAT.
- Errors in PROPTAX for the March 2011 supplement have been corrected.
- Errors in EMPSTAT for the March 2003 supplement have been corrected.
- Errors in OCCLY for March 2003-2011 supplement have been corrected. This variable is a 4-digit code beginning in 2003.
- The following Census Bureau SPM variables are available for the March 2010-2011 supplements: SPMLUNCH, SPMNEWFAM, SPMPOV, SPMMORT, SPMWT, SPMCHSUP, SPMSTTAX, SPMEITC, SPMSNAP, SPMFTOTVAL, SPMNADULTS, SPMNCHILD, SPMNPERS, SPMFAMUNIT. Additional SPM variables will be released in the near future.
- The following SHADAC HIU variables are available for March 1988-2011 supplements: HIURULE, HIUNPERS, HIUID, HIUFPGINC, and HIUFPGBASE.
- For March 2010-2011 supplement, MWPVAL reports the dollar amount of credit received from Making Work Pay.
- For March supplements 2005-2011, CTCCRD reports the dollar amount of the Child Tax Credit received and ACTCCRD reports the dollar amount of the Additional Child Tax Credit received.
- For March 1992-2011, FFNGCARE reports the dollar amount of the family's fungible value of Medicare and FFNGCAID reports the dollar amount of the family's fungible value of Medicaid.
New Supplemental Poverty Measure and Health Insurance Unit variables are now available on IPUMS-CPS.
Other variables newly available in IPUMS-CPS.
- RELATE and family interrelationship variables in the 1968-1975 March samples were updated:
- Errors in the RELATE variable for the 1968-1975 March samples have been corrected. In previous versions, RELATE excluded relationships between household members and children under the age of 14.
- We used additional information from the original CPS data to identify family relationships between children and adults in the household, improving the accuracy of information in the following variables: RELATE, MOMLOC, STEPMOM, MOMRULE, POPLOC, STEPPOP, POPRULE, SPLOC, SPRULE, FAMSIZE, NCHILD, NCHLT5, FAMUNIT, ELDCH, YNGCH, and NSIBS.
- Fixes were made to tax and non-cash benefit variables:
- Errors in FEDRETIR were fixed for the March 1992-2011 samples. The previous version of this variable truncated values at four characters wide; the current version is five characters wide.
- Errors in STAMPVAL for the March 2010 sample were corrected.
- Family interrelationship data have been released for all non-March samples.
- Newly released data for noncash benefits values and after tax values that were withheld from the initial release of 2010 and 2011 ASEC data are now available on IPUMS-CPS. These variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, PROPTAX, ADJGINC, DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAXAC, FEDTAX, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATAXAC, STATETAX, and TAXINC.
- The original household linking keys have been released for non-March samples from January 1998 through October 2008. These variables are HRHHID and HRHHID2 for all samples. We created HRHHID2 for samples prior to May 2004. The components we used to create have also been released (HRSERSUF, HRSAMPLE, AND HUHHNUM).
- The following changes have been made:
- OCC was widened from three digits to four for samples from January 2003 forward for consistency with Census occupation codes.
- Fixes were made to YRIMMIG to correctly classify recent immigrants into appropriate year ranges.
- We added WTFINL for the 1998-2002 non-March samples.
- We have discovered errors in poverty variables drawn from the alternative poverty files released by the Census Bureau. We are working to address these errors and will release the alternative poverty variables as soon as we can.
- The summary health insurance variables (constructed by SHADAC) are not yet available for March 2011; they will be released in the coming months.
- WHYMOVE has a new category in the 2011 March data that allows respondents to report moving as a result of foreclosure or eviction.
- There are new categories available for year of immigration (YRIMMIG).
- Corrections were made to HINSMIL, HCOVPRIV, and HCOVPUB in the March 2010 sample.
- An updated version of the March 1979 file is now available; previously missing records have now been included.
- Posted new basic monthly data for January 1998 through December 1999.
- The code for "not reported" values on occupation (OCC) in the 1972-1982 samples was changed from 1995 to 1994.
- The recodes for veteran status (VETSTAT) in the 1976-1987 samples were changed to be consistent with surrounding samples.
- IPUMS recodes of earner study variables (also known as "outgoing rotation group" variables) have changed. According to Technical Paper 66, issued jointly by the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, individuals eligible for the earner study are civilians age 15 and older in rotation groups 4 or 8 who are not self-employed. In any given month, approximately 1/4 of the CPS sample is in the earner study and each household should appear in the earner study exactly twice. For certain earner study variables, we had imposed age restrictions excluding respondents under age 15 and respondents in the armed forces. In this data release, we remove these universe restrictions. Potentially affected variables include UNION, EARNWT, EARNWEEK, HRSWORK, UHRSWORK, and PAIDHOUR. Based on documentation from Unicon and NBER, and after an inspection of the original CPS data, we recommend that users impose the CPS eligibility restrictions in any analyses of earner study variables.
- The previous data release truncated values of veteran's most recent period of service (VETLAST). This problem is fixed in the current data release.
- Codes for class of worker (CLASSWKR) were changed and expanded. Codes now include 21 (Wage/salary, private), 22 (Private, for profit), and 23 (Private, nonprofit). Codes 22 and 23 are unavailable in March supplement samples.
- The universe for worked full or part time last year (FULLPART) has been expanded to include respondents who worked fewer than 14 weeks last year.
- The coding scheme for education (EDUC) was modified to distinguish between 4 and 5 years of college. Codes 120 and 121 were added; codes 112-115 changed to 122-125.
- Summary health insurance variables are now available for the 2010 sample. Created by the State Health Access Data Assistance Center at the University of Minnesota, these variables smooth out several measurement differences across the various years of data and yield a consistent and easy-to-use set of health insurance variables.
- Replicate weights (REPWT, REPWTP) are now available for the 2010 sample. These contain full information about the complex sample design of the CPS and can be used to generate estimates of standard errors directly from the data. For more information, see our CPS replicate weight page.
- Six new variables measuring family relationships are now available for the 2007-onward samples. These variables identify respondents' spouses (ASPOUSE), cohabiting partners (PECOHAB), mothers (PELNMOM), and fathers (PELNDAD), as well as the specific relationship (biological, step-, or adoptive) of mothers (PEMOMTYP) and fathers (PEDADTYP). Because they are based on survey items, they are likely more accurate than the IPUMS pointers SPLOC, MOMLOC, and POPLOC. For more information, see the variable descriptions.
- Information on respondents' COUNTY of residence is now available for the 1996-onward samples. Users are cautioned that not all counties can be identified due to confidentiality restrictions, so the CPS should not be used to generate county-level statistics.
- Different sources of veteran income (GOTVDISA, GOTVEDUC, GOTVOTHE, GOTVPENS, GOTVSURV) are now available for the 1988 sample.
- There are new categories available for year of immigration (YRIMMIG). However, the codes for YRIMMIG still reflect the latest possible year that the respondent immigrated.
- Several items on which IPUMS welfare variables are based have been removed from the survey and are now unavailable. Of the welfare variables, only receipt of WIC (GOTWIC) remains. (KIDCNEED, identifying children who needed care while their parent(s) worked, is available according to CPS documentation, but is not available in the published data.)
- Two allocation flags--one for RACE (QRACE) and one for HISPAN (QHISPAN) are now available. QHISPAN has not been available before, while QRACE was available in a less detailed form and has been expanded to two digits.
- Several variables measuring non-cash benefits and after-tax income have been withheld by the Census Bureau until the release of official reports on alternative income and poverty measures These will be released as they become available, as will the alternative poverty measures themselves.
- The summary health insurance variables (constructed by SHADAC) are not yet available; they will be released in the coming months.
- The CPS replicate weights (calculated by the Census Bureau) were released too late to be included in this update, but IPUMS will include them as soon as possible.
Updated data are also available for CMBEG (an alternative measure of poverty) in the 2009 CPS; most respondents were erroneously classified as having family incomes of more than five times the federal poverty level. Users who downloaded this variable previously should revise their extract.
Finally, our extract system has been improved for enhanced performance and a more intuitively understandable interface. Click here for a summary of the changes, or see our instructions page for more information.
- The previous 2001 CPS has been replaced with the 2001 SCHIP expansion file, which contains data on 98,015 households and 206,639 persons--about 50 percent more households and 70 percent more persons than the previous version. The summary health insurance variables are now available for 2001, although other variable availability is unchanged.
- A new variable, CPI99, gives the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) to convert any dollar amount into constant 1999 dollars. For more information on how to use this variable, see this page.
- YRIMMIG, previously a three-digit code of intervalled years, is now a four-digit year that represents the latest possible year that the respondent could have immigrated to the U.S.
- Five variables are now available on the source of unearned income (INCUNERN) in the 1966 and 1967 samples: GOTSS, GOTINT, GOTDIVID, GOTRENT, and GOTWELFR. Because data on the amount of unearned income does not distinguish among the sources of unearned income, these variables contain information available nowhere else for these samples. However, users are advised that these variables may be inconsistent with INCUNERN.
- PROPTAX is now available for the 1992-2003 samples.
- WKSUNEM1 and WKSUNEM2 contained incorrect data in the 1988 sample. They now contain the correct codes.
- Miscellaneous clarifications and corrections to documentation.
March 2, 2010. Posted new versions of all IPUMS-CPS samples.
- New summary health insurance variables are available. Constructed by the University of Minnesota's State Health Access Data Assistance Center (SHADAC), these variables smooth over several temporal inconsistencies in the CPS's measurement of health insurance and make several improvements, most notably with the imputation of verified insurance data for the 1988-1999 period. They largely mirror the measurement of health insurance in the 2008-onward American Community Survey and therefore provide a convenient set of summary variables to easily analyze trends in insurance coverage across time. IPUMS-CPS thanks SHADAC staff for providing these variables and for their assistance in developing documentation.
- New variables have also been posted for the 2009 CPS that were not available when the data were originally released. They include the alternative poverty measures along with a new variable for 2009 (STIMULUS) describing individuals' income from the economic stimulus package passed in 2008. Finally, the after-tax variables are now available as well: Newly-released household variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, and PROPTAX; Person variables are ADJGINC,DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAX, FEDTAXAC, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATETAX, STATAXAC, and TAXINC. Additionally, STAMPVAL is no longer censored by the Census Bureau at $9,999; the new topcode is $19,999. CAPGAIN and CAPLOSS are no longer part of the alternative poverty model and are not included in the 2009 CPS PUMS file.
- Alternative poverty measures are also now available for the 2009 CPS. These measures were developed by the Census Bureau to incorporate information on medical out-of-pocket costs, geographic differences in the cost of living, and alternative methods of adjusting poverty thresholds for inflation. For details, see the alternative poverty measures page.
- The main education variable has been streamlined to parallel as much as possible its measurement in IPUMS-USA data. EDUCREC has been replaced with EDUC, which contains all information in the original variables. HIGRADE contains additional detail on grade attendance (EDUC, in contrast, informs only about completion) and has been retained. Although EDUC99 is redundant with EDUC, it is also retained because it contains simpler coding that may be of use to users analyzing only 1992-onward data.
- Negative replicate weight values (REPWT and REPWTP) are no longer automatically recoded to zero, and more information about working with replicate weights in the CPS is now available on our replicate weights page.
September 30, 2009. Added replicate weights, recently released by the Census Bureau, to the 2005-2009 CPS samples. Replicate weights can be used to estimate standard errors of sample statistics directly from the data. For more information, please see the REPWTP variable description. Users should be aware that selecting replicate weights will add 160 additional variables to extracts.
- Seven new disability variables: DIFFHEAR, DIFFEYE, DIFFREM, DIFFPHYS, DIFFMOB, DIFFCARE, and DIFFANY. These mirror the 2008 American Community Survey data, which will be released in late October.
- Industry codes (IND) now use the 2007 Census Bureau classification.There are no major substantive differences in the meanings of the categories, although some labels have changed. Only one code is different: industry codes of 6675 (Internet publishing and broadcasting) in the 2003-2008 CPS data have been shifted to 6672 (Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals) in the 2009 CPS data.
- Documentation has been updated for the health insurance variables PRIVWHO1, PRIVWHO2, GRPWHO1, and GRPWHO2, which give the line number (LINENO) of the policyholder if one is covered by a privately purchased or employer-based insurance policy. Although previous documentation stated otherwise, the universe for these variables does not include policyholders themselves, so these variables will not have the same value as LINENO for policyholders.
All other variables from the 2008 CPS remain the same, with the exception of non-cash benefits and tax variables as well as alternative poverty measures. These will be released in the IPUMS-CPS shortly after the Census Bureau releases them, most likely in early 2010.
- CONTPOV, available from 1968 onwards, gives one's total family income (FTOTVAL) expressed as a percentage of the poverty threshold for that family (CUTOFF). It is comparable to the POVERTY variable in IPUMS-USA.
- Twelve experimental poverty measures are now available from 2002 onwards. These measures were developed by the Census Bureau to incorporate information on medical out-of-pocket costs, geographic differences in the cost of living, and alternative methods of adjusting poverty thresholds for inflation. For details, see the alternative poverty measures page.
The new versions also include three corrections to the FAMUNIT coding. In each of the 1962-1994 samples, FAMUNIT has generally changed for less than 0.5 percent of the cases. In each of the 1995-2008 samples, FAMUNIT has changed for 1-2 percent of the cases. Because FAMSIZE and NFAMS incorporate information from FAMUNIT, all persons in households where someone has a new FAMUNIT code may have different values for FAMSIZE and NFAMS, even if their own FAMUNIT code has not changed. In practice, though, very few persons have different FAMSIZE and NFAMS values in the 1962-1994 data. Details follow:
- In households where the head is not the first person record, the first person record and any persons linked via MOMLOC, POPLOC, or SPLOC to the first person record were grouped with the primary family (FAMUNIT = 1) because of a programming error. From 1976 to 1993 and from 2006 to 2008, the head was always listed first in the household, and this particular correction does not affect these samples. In other samples, though, unrelated individuals are occasionally listed first; and they and their own relatives were mistakenly given FAMUNIT codes of 1.
- FAMUNIT codes of 1 are now reserved exclusively for persons with a RELATE code of less than 1100 and any individuals linked to them by birth, marriage, or adoption. Thus household fragments now receive FAMUNIT codes of 2; they received codes of 1 before. This correction affects all samples.
- A programming error included unmarried partners of the head in the primary family (FAMUNIT = 1). This particular correction affects only the 1995-2008 samples, since the unmarried partner relationship category is available only in these years.
Finally, there are minor changes to three other variables:
- The original 1963 CPS data include some nonsense codes for total family income (FTOTVAL). This variable is no longer available for 1963 from IPUMS-CPS.
- Where the original CPS data has both the head and the head's spouse as the same SEX, the IPUMS imposes an edit that codes the head as male and the spouse as female. The correction allows this edit to be carried out for one household in the 1973 CPS where it did not occur before.
- The categories of EDUC99 have been altered to conform to the recent IPUMS-USA revision of this variable. Codes of 0-11 remain identical, the code of 12 is now an empty placeholder, and former codes of 12-17 have been shifted to 13-18. This change applies to the codes only; there has been no substantive change in the data.
May 19, 2009. Posted new data for 2008. In the initial 2008 CPS release, several variables were withheld until the release of official reports on alternative income and poverty measures. These variables have since been released by the Census Bureau and are included in the current IPUMS-CPS release. Newly-released household variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, and PROPTAX. Person variables are ADJGINC, CAPGAIN, CAPLOSS, DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAX, FEDTAXAC, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATETAX, STATAXAC, and TAXINC.
February 23, 2009. Posted new versions for 1962-1967. The only variables affected were OCC, IND, OCCLY, and INDLY. Persons not in the universe previously had values of either 0, 98, 99, or 999. All persons not in the universe now have a value of 99 in all of these variables.
September 16, 2008. Posted new data for 2007 and 2008:
2007: In the initial 2007 CPS release, several variables were withheld until the release of official reports on alternative income and poverty measures. These variables have since been released by the Census Bureau and are included in the current IPUMS-CPS release. Newly-released household variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, and PROPTAX. Person variables are ADJGINC, CAPGAIN, CAPLOSS, DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAX, FEDTAXAC, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATETAX, STATAXAC, and TAXINC.
2008: All variables for the 2008 CPS are the same as those available in the 2007 CPS, except for the non-cash benefits and after-tax variables mentioned above, which are again being withheld for several months. These will be released in the IPUMS-CPS shortly after the Census Bureau releases them, most likely in early 2009.
November 12, 2007. Released a new data extract system with the Attach Variables feature. This allows researchers to create variables specifying the characteristics of respondents' spouses, mothers, fathers, and household heads. New online help for the Case Selection and Attach Variables features is also available via hyperlinks from the data extract system. In addition, we have improved the look and functionality of our variable descriptions and codes pages.
October 24, 2007. Posted new data for 2005, 2006, and 2007:
2005: In April 2007, the Census Bureau released a new 2005 data file, with revisions to the health insurance variables. The Census Bureau documents this in a User Note. The new data are part of the current IPUMS-CPS release.
The most significant changes are to the following employment-based insurance variables: GROUPWHO1 and GROUPDEP (1.3% of cases modified); and GROUPTYP (.9% of cases modified). Another group of health insurance variables (PHINSUR, PHIOWN, VERIFY, COVERGH, COVERPI, and EMCONTRB) had approximately .7% of their values changed. The rest of the changes to the health insurance variables in 2005 amount to less than .5% of cases modified, except for PAIDGH and GROUPOUT, which were not changed at all.
In addition, the Census Bureau modified the following variables (the percent of cases changed to the 'Not applicable' category appears in parentheses after each variable name): UNION (3.7%), EARNWEEK (3.7%), and HOURWAGE (35.3%). Additional information on these changes will appear in a future revision note.
2006: In the initial 2006 CPS release, several variables were withheld until the release of official reports on alternative income and poverty measures. These variables have since been released by the Census Bureau and are included in the current IPUMS-CPS release. Newly-released household variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, and PROPTAX. Person variables are ADJGINC, CAPGAIN, CAPLOSS, DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAX, FEDTAXAC, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATETAX, STATAXAC, and TAXINC.
In addition, the latest release of the 2006 CPS includes revisions to the health insurance variables (see the Census Bureau's User Note). The largest changes are to the following employment-based insurance variables: GROUPWHO1 and GROUPDEP (1.3% of cases modified); and GROUPTYP (1% of cases modified). Another group of health insurance variables (PHINSUR, PHIOWN, VERIFY, COVERGH, and COVERPI) had approximately .7% of their values changed. The rest of the changes to the health insurance variables in 2006 amount to less than .5% of cases modified, except for PAIDGH, GROUPOUT, CHAMPVA, and MOCAID, which were not changed at all.
The Census Bureau also modified the following variables (the percent of cases changed to the 'Not applicable' category appears in parentheses after each variable name): UNION (3.7%), EARNWEEK (3.7%), and HOURWAGE (35.3%). Additional information on these changes will appear in a future revision note.
2007: For the 2007 March CPS, the Census Bureau dropped the Hurricane Katrina questions from the survey (IPUMS-CPS variables KATEVAC, KATEVAC2, and KATPRIOR) as well as the variable indicating country of previous residence (COUNTRY). All other variables for the 2007 CPS are the same as those available in the 2006 CPS, except for the non-cash benefits and after-tax variables mentioned above, which are again being withheld for several months. These will be released in the IPUMS-CPS shortly after the Census Bureau releases them.
May 1, 2007. Posted new version of the 1994 sample: a correction was made to the MBPL variable.
February 2, 2007. Posted new versions of the 2005 and 2006 samples: a correction was made to the CUTOFF variable.
December 1, 2006. Posted new data for 1963, 1966, and 1967. All weighting variables in these samples were adjusted by a constant. The samples now produce accurate population estimates. More information is available on the sample notes page.
October 19, 2006. Posted new data for 2004, 2005, and 2006:
2004: In the initial March 2004 release, several variables were withheld until the release of official reports. These variables have since been released by the Census Bureau and are included in the October 2006 IPUMS-CPS release. Newly-released household variables are STAMPVAL, HOUSRET, and PROPTAX. Person variables are ADJGINC, CAPGAIN, CAPLOSS, DEPSTAT, EITCRED, EMCONTRB, FEDRETIR, FEDTAX, FICA, FILESTAT, MARGTAX, PMVCAID, PMVCARE, STATETAX, and TAXINC.
2005: In August 2006, the Census Bureau released a new 2005 data file. The new dataset includes all variables listed above, plus FEDTAXAC and STATAXAC. In addition, changes were made to the weight variables and several health insurance variables. The Census Bureau documents this along with their March CPS downloads (Endnote 16). The IPUMS-CPS variables affected by these changes are HWTSUPP (formerly HHWT), WTSUPP (formerly PERWT), PAIDGH, HIMCAID, HIMCARE, HICHAMP, PHINSUR, PHIOWN, CAID, CHAMPUS, CHAMPVA, MILITVA, GROUPOWN, GROUPDEP, PRIVOWN, PRIVDEP, GROUPTYP, PRIVTYP, GRPWHO1, GRPWHO2, PRIVWHO1, PRIVWHO2, SCHIP, VERIFY, GROUPOUT, PRIVOUT, OUT, COVERGH, COVERPI, KIDPRIV, and KIDCAID. The weight variables were recalculated for the entire sample. For PRIVTYP, about 25% of people who were coded 'Family plan' or 'Self only covered' in the previous version of the dataset are coded 'NIU' in the new data. Aside from the weights and PRIVTYP, the changes to any given variable affect less than 1 percent of person records in the 2005 CPS.
2006: For the 2006 March CPS, several migration questions were added to the survey in order to assess the impact of Hurricane Katrina. The new IPUMS-CPS Katrina variables are KATEVAC, KATEVAC2, and KATPRIOR. In addition, several new veteran variable were introduced. These variables expand the information collected on a veteran's period(s) of service. For more information, see the variable descriptions for the new veteran variables: VET1, VET2, VET3, VET4.