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Labor force information collected by self or proxy response

Codes and Frequencies

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LFPROXY indicates whether labor force information was obtained from the individual respondent, a proxy, or a combination of respondent and proxy.


There was a wording change in January 1994. The codes changed from "Self", "Other", and "Self or other" to "Self", "Proxy", and "Both self and proxy". The harmonized variable LFPROXY uses the later wording.

Users should also be aware of additional fluctuations across time in the frequency of code 03 (Both self and proxy). To date, we have not identified the source of these patterns.

For ASEC samples, LFPROXY is a variable constructed by IPUMS. We use a household level variable in the original data which indicates the line number of the respondent for the household in that survey. Sensitivity testing shows that the constructed variable conflicts with the original LFPROXY in a small number of cases in samples (non-ASEC) that have LFPROXY in the original data.


  • Persons age 15+
  • Integrated variable


Years Jan Feb ASEC Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1989 – 1990 X X - X X X X X X X X X X
1991 – 2023 X X X X X X X X X X X X X
2024 X X - X X - - - - - - - -


This variable has no flags.

Unharmonized Variables