- Questionnaire Text
- UnHarmonized Variables
999999999 = N.I.U.
999999998 = Missing. (1962-1964 only)
Values can be negative.
The Census Bureau applies different disclosure avoidance measures across time for individuals with high income in this variable. Detailed explanations of these methods, topcodes, and replacement value and swap value thresholds are available here.
INCTOT indicates each respondent's total pre-tax personal income or losses from all sources for the previous calendar year. Amounts are expressed as they were reported to the interviewer; users must adjust for inflation using Consumer Price Index adjustment factors.
Apart from the effects of inflation and changes in the variable universe, INCTOT is comparable across years.
INCTOT represents the sum of several different types of income that the survey asked respondents to report. The component income variables in IPUMS-CPS are as follows:
Comparability with IPUMS-USA
INCTOT is basically comparable in IPUMS-USA and IPUMS-CPS. Income data were collected from persons age 14+ in the 1960 and 1970 censuses and from persons age 14+ in the survey from 1962-1979. The 1980 and 2000 censuses and the CPS beginning in 1980 collected income information from persons age 15+. The only discrepancy was that no lower age limit was set for INCTOT in the 1990 census, versus the age 15+ cut-off for INCTOT in the CPS. The CPS questioned respondents about more specific types of income than the census did, particularly after 1988. See specific income variables listed above for further discussion of comparability issues between IPUMS-CPS and IPUMS-USA.
- 1962-1963: Persons age 14+ who were not in rotation groups 4 or 8.
- 1964-1979: Persons age 14+.
- 1980+: Persons age 15+.
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