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Industry, 1990 basis

Codes and Frequencies

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IND1990 recodes information contained in the variable IND into the 1990 Census Bureau industrial classification system. Developed to enhance the comparability of industry data in historical U.S. census samples in IPUMS-USA, IND1990 also provides a consistent set of industry codes for IPUMS-CPS from 1968 forward.

For general discussion of the IND1990 variable, users should consult the IPUMS-USA documentation. For discussion of the CPS data on industry that are recoded into IND1990, see IND.


Although the universe for this variable changed over time, the codes used in IND1990 are consistent over time. Data on industries for 1962-1967 were not recoded into IND1990 because not enough industry classifications were used in the original data to allow recoding.

Comparability with IPUMS-USA

The industry codes of IND1990 are identical for IPUMS-CPS and IPUMS-USA. This shared classification system does not, however, overcome differences in the universes on industry data in the two sources. Beginning in 1980, the census used age 16 as the lowest age cut-off for employment questions, while the CPS used a cut-off of age 15 beginning in 1980 and of age 14 in earlier years. Because the CPS is designed to measure the labor force experience of civilians, members of the armed forces were not asked this question in the survey. Persons in the military are included in the census and ACS data on IND1990.


  • Persons age 15+ who: were currently employed; or had previously worked and were looking for work; or were not currently in the labor force but had worked in the preceding 5 years.


Years Jan Feb ASEC Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1968 – 1975 - - X - - - - - - - - - -
1976 – 2023 X X X X X X X X X X X X X
2024 X X - X - - - - - - - - -


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