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Migration status, 1 year

Codes and Frequencies

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MIGRATE1 indicates whether the respondent had changed residence in the past year. Those who were living in the same house as one year ago were considered non-movers and were asked no further questions about migration over the past year. Movers were asked about the city, county and state and/or the U.S. territory or foreign country where they resided one year ago.

The category "Same house" includes both persons who did not move since the reference date (March 1 of the preceding year) and those who had moved and then returned to their earlier residence. Movers are subdivided into the following categories: those who had moved within the same county; those who had crossed county lines but stayed in the same state; those who those who had resided in a different state; and those who had migrated from abroad.

Information about the state where movers were living one year ago is available in the MIGSTA1 variable. COUNTRY specifies the foreign country or U.S. territory of previous residence for those who migrated from abroad during the past year.

In the 2002 ASEC sample, 54 children between the ages of 1 and 3 are coded as NIU in the original data and have been left unrecoded despite not being in line with the universe statement in the original documentation.

User Caution: Frequencies in the 1995 ASEC original CPS data are highly suspect and differ greatly from surrounding years.


This variable is largely comparable over time. In 1963, only movers and non-movers can be distinguished, due to errors in the original data file.

In 1995, frequencies differ greatly from surrounding years for unknown reasons. Users should use caution.

Comparability with IPUMS-USA

Most censuses included in IPUMS-USA collected information about whether respondents were living in the same house five years ago rather than one year ago. The 1950 census and the ACS samples in IPUMS-USA include a MIGRATE1 variable comparable to MIGRATE1 in IPUMS-CPS. However, in the ACS samples, respondents who lived in Puerto Rico one year prior are coded as "Moved between states" whereas in IPUMS-CPS these cases are coded as "Abroad one year ago."


  • 1963-1967: All persons (pre-1968 samples do not include persons under age 14).
  • 1968+: Persons age 1+.


Years Jan Feb ASEC Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1963 – 1971 - - X - - - - - - - - -
1976 - - X - - - - - - - - -
1981 – 1984 - - X - - - - - - - - -
1986 – 2023 - - X - - - - - - - - -