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Codes and Frequencies

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BPL indicates whether persons were born in the United States and, if not, the foreign country where they were born.


The 1994 data include only 41 categories for BPL, with all other answers coded into a residual "Other" category. For 1995 forward, three times as many categories are recognized, including categories for countries in the Middle East, Africa, and Oceania. The data must be recoded into the smaller number of categories available in 1994 to achieve comparability across time.

Comparability with IPUMS-USA

IPUMS-CPS data on birthplace is recoded using the same BPL codes available in IPUMS-USA, but fewer categories are included in the CPS than in the census and the ACS. State of birth is supplied by the census and ACS samples, but only a general "United States" code is given in the CPS. Because fewer codes are included in IPUMS-CPS than in IPUMS-USA, residual categories like "Other Africa" and "Other" are more inclusive in the CPS than in the census and the ACS.


  • All persons.


Years Jan Feb ASEC Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1994 – 2019 X X X X X X X X X X X X X
2020 X X - X X - - - - - - - -


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