Income Components:
Topcodes, Replacement Values, and Swap Values

For confidentiality reasons, the Census Bureau has a system of topcoding reported income components to prevent the identification of individuals with extremely low or high incomes. Prior to 1996, there is little documentation available for topcoding procedures, but the effective topcoding in the data is presented in a table below. Starting with the 1996 ASEC CPS surveys, different topcodes were given for ERNVAL, WSVAL, SEVAL, and FRMVAL. Then, topcodes values for each variable were replaced with values assigned based on the individual's characterisitics. Starting in 1998, other income variables were also included in this procedure. Unless there is a specified topcode for replacement values for the years 1996 to 2010, the topcode value threshold holds as the Census did for 1962-1995.

Starting in 2011, the Census Bureau shifted from the average replacement value system to a rank proximity swapping procedure. In this technique, all values greater than or equal to the income topcode are ranked from lowest to highest and systematically swapped with other values within a bounded interval. All swapped values are also rounded to two significant digits.

In the replacement value tables, cells with "--" did not have any topcoded records. Cells with an * did not contain at least 5 topcoded records and were collapsed together. In topcode tables, mean earnings cells with "--" mean that the average topcoded earnings are displayed in the replacement values table. Because INCWAGE is taken from the Census variable WSALVAL, which is a sum of ERNVAL and WSVAL, some values of INCWAGE will be greater than the values for ERNVAL in the replacement value tables.

A 2008 paper generated replacement values using restricted CPS data from 1976 to 2002. This data, including IPUMS identifiers, can be downloaded from this page. The Census Bureau created a similar file that uses the rank proximity swap value method to replace topcoded values from 1975-2010. We also provide this file with IPUMS identifiers at the same page. Both files are meant to provide researchers with consistent topcoding methods over time.

Additional information on topcodes, NIU codes and missing values can be found in this User Note.

Topcodes by Year

First is a table, partially derived from Appendix Tables 2 and 3 in Larrimore et al. 2008, that gives topcodes thresholds for all income components over time. In this first table, when the original CPS topcode is 99999, IPUMS replaces the value with the topcode value 99997 to distinguish it from the IPUMS NIU value.

The following sections present topcodes by year for major income components, such as ERN-VAL, SE-VAL, and others, which had been published in the original CPS codebooks (except the replacement values for 1996 and 1997, which were found in the data but were not published).

Master Topcodes Table by Year

1996 Income Topcodes & 1996 Income Replacement/Average Values
1997 Income Topcodes & 1997 Income Replacement/Average Values
1998 Income Topcodes & 1998 Income Replacement/Average Values
1999 Income Topcodes & 1999 Income Replacement/Average Values
2000 Income Topcodes & 2000 Income Replacement/Average Values
2001 Income Topcodes & 2001 Income Replacement/Average Values
2002 Income Topcodes & 2002 Income Replacement/Average Values
2003 Income Topcodes & 2003 Income Replacement/Average Values
2004 Income Topcodes & 2004 Income Replacement/Average Values
2005 Income Topcodes & 2005 Income Replacement/Average Values
2006 Income Topcodes & 2006 Income Replacement/Average Values
2007 Income Topcodes & 2007 Income Replacement/Average Values
2008 Income Topcodes & 2008 Income Replacement/Average Values
2009 Income Topcodes & 2009 Income Replacement/Average Values
2010 Income Topcodes & 2010 Income Replacement/Average Values
2011 Income Topcodes/Swap Values
2012 Income Topcodes/Swap Values
2013 Income Topcodes/Swap Values
2014 Income Topcodes/Swap Values
2015 Income Topcodes/Swap Values
2016 Income Topcodes/Swap Values

All Income Components Topcodes by Year


IPUMS
Variable
Census income
variable
1962-1967 1968-1975 1976-1981 1982-1984 1985-1987
INCALOTH I53F -- 50000 50000 75000 99999
INCBUS I51B ?? 50000 50000 75000 99999
INCDRT I53C -- -- 50000 75000 99999
INCFARM I51C 99900 99900 50000 75000 99999
INCGOV I53D -- 29999 29999 29999 29999
INCIDR PSRCBINC -- 50000 -- -- --
INCRETIR I53E 99900 99900 50000 75000 99999
INCSS I52A -- ?? 9999 19999 19999
INCSSI I52B -- -- 5999 5999 9999
INCUNERN UNEARN2 99999 -- -- -- --
INCWAGE I51A 99900 50000 50000 75000 99999
INCWELFR I53A -- ?? 19999 19999 19999

Note: Cells with "--" imply the variable is not available for that year, while cells with "??" imply that no values were topcoded in that time period and it is not possible to tell from the data what the implied topcode is.

IPUMS
Variable
Census income
variable
1988-1993 1994-1995 1996-1998 1999 2000-2002 2003-2010
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 99999 99999 150000 150000 150000 200000
INCALIM ALM-VAL 99999 99999 99999 50000 40000 45000
INCASIST FIN-VAL 99999 99999 99999 30000 30000 30000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 99999 99999 40000 40000 40000 50000
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 99999 99999 99999 15000 15000 15000
INCDISA1 DISVAL1 99999 99999 99999 35000 35000 35000
INCDISA2 DISVAL2 99999 99999 99999 35000 35000 35000
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 99999 99999 99999 15000 15000 15000
INCEDUC ED-VAL 99999 99999 99999 20000 20000 20000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 99999 99999 25000 25000 25000 25000
INCINT INT-VAL 99999 99999 99999 15000 15000 15000
INCOTHER OI-VAL 99999 99999 99999 25000 25000 25000
INCRENT RNT-VAL 99999 99999 99999 25000 25000 40000
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 99999 99999 99999 45000 45000 45000
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 99999 99999 99999 45000 45000 45000
INCSS SS-VAL 29999 49999 49999 49999 49999 49999
INCSSI SSI-VAL 9999 9999 25000 25000 25000 25000
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 99999 99999 99999 50000 50000 50000
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 99999 99999 99999 50000 50000 50000
INCUNEMP UC-VAL 99999 99999 99999 99999 99999 99999
INCVET VET-VAL 29999 99999 99999 99999 99999 99999
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 99999 99999 25000 25000 25000 35000
INCWAGE WSAL-VAL 199998 199998 + + + +
INCWELFR PAW-VAL 19999 24999 24999 24999 24999 24999
INCWKCOM WC-VAL 99999 99999 99999 99999 99999 99999

Note: + : see replacement value tables for those years. INCWAGE is made of topcoded components.

1996 Income Topcodes

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IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 150,000 576,372
OINCBUS SE-VAL 40,000 154,528
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 53,067
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 25,000 183,748

1996 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M,NBH,FTYR 64,542 154,528 53,067 302,539
M,NBH,OTHR 77,983 150,318 -- 268,562
M,B,FTYR 29,778 82,233* 45,717* 464,782
M,B,OTH 35,662* 82,233* -- 404,570*
M,H,FTYR 183,748 -- -- 257,390
M,H,OTH 35,662* -- -- 404,570*
F,NBH,FTYR 56,977 64,058 45,717* 283,525
F,NBH,OTH 41,501 82,233* 45,717* 576,372
F,B,FTYR 35,662* -- -- 404,570*
F,B,OTH 35,662* -- -- --
F,H,FTYR 35,662* -- -- 404,570*
F,H,OTH -- -- -- 404,570*

1997 Income Topcodes

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IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 150,000 454,816
OINCBUS SE-VAL 40,000 152,709
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 38,781
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 25,000 257,102

1997 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M,NBH,FTYR 45,749 128,477 38,781* 318,982
M,NBH,OTHR 79,461 152,709* -- 325,788
M,B,FTYR 62,044* 152,709* -- 391,163
M,B,OTH -- -- -- 454,816*
M,H,FTYR 62,044* 152,709* -- 384,160
M,H,OTH 62,044* -- -- 454,816*
F,NBH,FTYR 48,635 152,709* 38,781* 357,884
F,NBH,OTH 54,576 152,709* -- 222,551
F,B,FTYR 257,102 -- -- 454,816*
F,B,OTH -- 152,709* -- 454,816*
F,H,FTYR 62,044* 152,709* -- 454,816*
F,H,OTH 62,044* -- -- --

1998 Income Topcodes

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IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($)
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 150,000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 40,000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 25,000

Note: In the original Census codebooks for ASEC 1998, the upper limits of possible values appear to be replacement values for all the additional income components treated with replacement values starting in 1999. The original data, however, conforms to the first table on this page.

1998 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M,NBH,FTYR 61,345 101,769 90,170 330,659
M,NBH,OTHR 88,513 104,335 92,601 330,095
M,B,FTYR 51,707 -- -- 204,325
M,B,OTH 40,732 104,335 -- 267,659
M,H,FTYR 39,943 104,335 -- 309,950
M,H,OTH 47,530 -- -- 267,659
F,NBH,FTYR 48,755 54,484 61,127 306,468
F,NBH,OTH 39,353 104,335 92,601 442,040
F,B,FTYR 47,530 -- -- 267,659
F,B,OTH 47,530 104,335 -- --
F,H,FTYR 35,080 -- -- 394,555
F,H,OTH 47,530 -- 92,601 267,659

Characteristics Definitions

1999 Income Topcodes

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IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 50,000 93,114
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 40,717
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 26,592
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 55,328
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 54,857
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 36,877
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 27,810
INCINT INT-VAL 35,000 60,819
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 44,265
INCRENT RNT-VAL 25,000 57,453
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 62,277
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 49,551
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 89,007
INCSURV2 SURVAL2 50,000 89,007
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 150,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 40,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 25,000 --

1999 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M,NBH,FTYR 59,925 123,543 65,337 306,731
M,NBH,OTH 50,406 103,545 44,558 348,516
M,B,FTYR 51,139 -- -- 266,303
M,B,OTH -- -- -- --
M,H,FTYR 52,678 103,545 -- 419,044
M,H,OTH 57,828 103,545 -- 492,657
F,NBH,FTYR 35,583 52,835 44,558 402,204
F,NBH,OTH 59,301 131,519 44,558 390,510
F,B,FTYR 34,826 -- -- 492,657
F,B,OTH 57,828 -- -- 492,657
F,H,FTYR 36,826 -- -- 367,181
F,H,OTH 36,604 -- -- 492,657

Characteristics Definitions

2000 Income Topcodes

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IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 40,000 54,009
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 54,560
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 23,918
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 73,484
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 73,484
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 36,962
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 25,585
INCINT INT-VAL 35,000 63,005
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 50,217
INCRENT RNT-VAL 25,000 55,220
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 63,210
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 62,139
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 83,427
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 83,427
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 150,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 40,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 25,000 --

2000 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M,NBH,FTYR 50,038 119,585 87,165 229,340
M,NBH,OTH 49,809 107,128 51,355 205,817
M,B,FTYR 35,624 -- -- 257,525
M,B,OTH 31,178 64,058 -- 244,805
M,H,FTYR 39,676 64,058 51,355 362,302
M,H,OTH 31,178 64,058 -- 244,805
F,NBH,FTYR 51,468 63,257 54,784 197,387
F,NBH,OTH 65,960 64,543 62,400 284,133
F,B,FTYR 67,780 -- -- 244,805
F,B,OTH 31,178 -- -- 244,805
F,H,FTYR 50,769 -- -- 333,565
F,H,OTH 236,225 64,058 51,355

Characteristics Definitions

2001 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 40,000 62,073
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 48,068
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 27,933
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 60,673
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 60,673
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 38,892
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 31,910
INCINT INT-VAL 35,000 61,101
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 40,819
INCRENT RNT-VAL 25,000 54,650
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 64,547
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 62,481
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 82,056
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 84,388
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 150,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 40,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 25,000 --

2001 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M,NBH,FTYR 56,879 119,800 133,004 335,115
M,NBH,OTH 55,632 88,983 184,485 321,602
M,B,FTYR 76,729 59,988 184,485 306,926
M,B,OTH 38,579 -- -- --
M,H,FTYR 39,963 59,988 184,485 281,921
M,H,OTH 31,475 -- -- 337,173
F,NBH,FTYR 41,433 59,988 184,485 289,031
F,NBH,OTH 39,320 61,878 184,485 195,699
F,B,FTYR 39,821 -- 184,485 337,173
F,B,OTH 37,723 -- -- 337,173
F,H,FTYR 37,781 -- 184,485 312,752
F,H,OTH 37,723 59,988 184,485 --

Characteristics Definitions

2002 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 40,000 63,554
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 25,657
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 46,155
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 52,858
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 --
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 38,962
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 34,876
INCINT INT-VAL 35,000 64,854
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 47,177
INCRENT RNT-VAL 25,000 57,417
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 64,501
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 65,080
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 90,937
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 90,937
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 150,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 40,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 25,000 --

2002 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 320,718 60,670 127,597 44,547
M, NBH, OTH 319,749 62,491 98,041 45,604
M, B, FTYR 326,969 49,155 108,083 303,621
M, B, OTH 432,853 37,606 -- --
M, H, FTYR 331,926 50,534 79,683 49,415
M, H, OTH 432,853 44,088 49,520 303,621
F, NBH, FTYR 361,315 43,389 56,934 431,345
F, NBH, OTH 270,370 44,255 48,880 360,886
F, B, FTYR 477,562 40,566 49,520 303,621
F, B, OTH -- 48,818 -- --
F, H, FTYR 330,981 65,493 49,520 303,621
F, B, OTH 432,853 37,606 49,520 --

Characteristics Definitions

2003 Income Topcodes

Cells with an asterisk (*) were collapsed together.

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 54,886
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 60,846
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 25,714
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 66,563
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 --
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 33,581
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 31,142
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 50,186
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 58,194
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 72,409
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 63,889
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 81,933
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 86,529*
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 86,529*
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --

2003 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Cells with an asterisk (*) were collapsed together.

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 91,360 141,605 65,682 390,823
M, NBH, OTH 63,217 193,633 107,814 487,716
M, B, FTYR 60,724 149,560 199,326 443,501
M, B, OTH 48,548 -- -- --
M, H, FTYR 49,866 149,560 199,326 562,913
M, H, OTH 49,483 -- -- --
F, NBH, FTYR 55,255 75,880 46,839 480,607
F, NBH, OTH 51,520 149,560 199,326 343,880
F, B, FTYR 48,548 -- -- 336,975
F, B, OTH 48,548 -- -- --
F, H, FTYR 57,290 -- 199,326 595,494
F, B, OTH -- -- -- --

Characteristics Definitions

2004 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 74,692
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 51,555
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 28,201
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 57,375
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 --
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 39,987
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 30,986
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 51,372
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 47,050
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 74,636
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 62,401
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 61,613
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 82,330
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 82,330
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --

2004 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 89,988 111,645 67,545 404,469
M, NBH, OTH 85,005 154,049 72,338 352,161
M, B, FTYR 156,017 104,785 37,503 360,083
M, B, OTH 50,720 104,785 -- 407,231
M, H, FTYR 64,536 91,233 50,171 427,646
M, H, OTH 53,834 104,785 301,900 407,231
F, NBH, FTYR 67,710 99,464 40,178 390,847
F, NBH, OTH 50,853 104,785 37,503 520,705
F, B, FTYR 57,293 104,785 37,503 556,932
F, B, OTH 53,834 -- -- 407,231
F, H, FTYR 49,202 -- -- 387,963
F, B, OTH 53,834 104,785 37,503 --

Characteristics Definitions

2005 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 64,152
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 57,893
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 26,280
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 53,727
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 53,727
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 35,416
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 30,892
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 55,524
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 65,537
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 76,259
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 59,636
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 59,941
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 83,153
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 83,153
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --

2005 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 77,282 160,832 50,413 422,850
M, NBH, OTH 65,850 166,826 72,431 490,151
M, B, FTYR 60,016 164,370 45,639 471,917
M, B, OTH 48,355 -- 45,639 --
M, H, FTYR 57,768 164,370 45,639 421,411
M, H, OTH 55,796 164,370 -- 713,263
F, NBH, FTYR 63,911 90,574 71,842 474,404
F, NBH, OTH 58,200 89,079 72,177 502,982
F, B, FTYR 53,189 -- 45,639 713,263
F, B, OTH 48,355 -- -- --
F, H, FTYR 60,586 164,370 45,639 366,935
F, B, OTH 48,355 -- 45,639 713,263

Characteristics Definitions

2006 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 79,169
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 44,671
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 26,483
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 57,002
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 57,002
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 37,508
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 31,645
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 54,984
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 44,131
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 76,212
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 60,185
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 69,170
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 88,265
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 88,265
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --

2006 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 79,378 186,628 208,516 423,545
M, NBH, OTH 71,808 153,392 289,288 535,835
M, B, FTYR 52,371 76,650 43,931 543,488
M, B, OTH 106,075 -- 43,931 --
M, H, FTYR 54,590 76,650 141,398 404,840
M, H, OTH 54,656 76,650 -- 303,536
F, NBH, FTYR 55,344 80,515 51,655 410,175
F, NBH, OTH 65,828 76,650 37,129 475,211
F, B, FTYR 59,002 76,650 43,931 303,536
F, B, OTH 54,656 -- -- 303,536
F, H, FTYR 68,283 76,650 43,931 257,855
F, B, OTH 54,656 -- -- 303,536

Characteristics Definitions

2007 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 74,367
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 55,318
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 30,625
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 57,500
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 --
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 38,224
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 31,953
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 53,946
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 51,238
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 75,061
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 62,089
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 60,190
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 89,702
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 89,702
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --

2007 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 74,091 125,974 145,701 437,528
M, NBH, OTH 59,081 82,124 48,679 446,853
M, B, FTYR 53,197 195,957 48,679 579,599
M, B, OTH 46,986 195,957 -- 391,498
M, H, FTYR 56,306 146,920 48,679 619,221
M, H, OTH 46,986 -- 48,679 610,317
F, NBH, FTYR 61,472 454,133 43,376 423,652
F, NBH, OTH 52,975 195,957 48,679 378,348
F, B, FTYR 45,266 195,957 -- 615,203
F, B, OTH 46,986 -- 48,679 --
F, H, FTYR 240,674 -- 48,679 438,937
F, B, OTH -- -- -- 391,498

Characteristics Definitions

2008 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 78,221
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 54,932
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 27,258
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 53,033
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 --
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 33,651
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 32,350
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 52,619
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 52,305
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 70,556
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 64,317
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 54,832
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 84,949
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 84,949
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --

2008 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 73,029 93,400 43,286 419,969
M, NBH, OTH 81,226 109,594 49,095 451,584
M, B, FTYR 51,636 93,014 -- 272,589
M, B, OTH 65,442 -- -- 452,792
M, H, FTYR 56,732 93,014 49,095 425,629
M, H, OTH 51,001 -- -- 452,792
F, NBH, FTYR 57,459 93,014 63,438 366,022
F, NBH, OTH 77,391 113,081 117,856 496,759
F, B, FTYR 57,069 93,014 -- 688,117
F, B, OTH 57,991 -- 49,095 --
F, H, FTYR 57,991 93,014 49,095 351,023
F, B, OTH 57,991 -- -- 452,792

Characteristics Definitions

2009 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 81,848
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 50,286
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 32,742
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 59,407
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 --
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 15,000 38,815
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 34,506
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 51,580
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 60,372
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 73,177
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 63,965
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 62,278
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 81,265
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 --
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --

2009 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M, NBH, FTYR 82,946 133,732 62,368 389,599
M, NBH, OTH 69,999 111,752 68,269 403,543
M, B, FTYR 62,071 183,401 -- 553,087
M, B, OTH 52,109 -- 35,615 440,233
M, H, FTYR 57,838 183,401 35,615 436,465
M, H, OTH 82,098 183,401 35,615 506,827
F, NBH, FTYR 59,069 171,377 35,615 407,720
F, NBH, OTH 61,413 183,401 38,521 420,227
F, B, FTYR 70,577 183,401 -- 383,596
F, B, OTH 52,109 -- -- 440,233
F, H, FTYR 64,367 -- -- 397,063
F, B, OTH 52,109 -- 35615 --

Characteristics Definitions

2010 Income Topcodes

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes ($) Mean Earnings ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 45,000 71,470
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000 56,017
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 15,000 30,870
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 35,000 54,708
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 35,000 --
INCEDUC ED-VAL 20,000 32,097
INCIDIVD DIV-VAL 15,000 40,100
INCINT INT-VAL 25,000 55,289
INCOTHER OI-VAL 25,000 64,994
INCRENT RNT-VAL 40,000 71,580
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 45,000 64,179
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 45,000 54,754
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000 88,489
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 50,000 88,489
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 200,000 --
OINCBUS SE-VAL 50,000 --
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 25,000 --
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 35,000 --

2010 Income Replacement/Average Values by Characteristics

Cells with an asterisk (*) were collapsed together.

Records that were topcoded will have a value greater than the topcode value. The topcode was replaced with the mean earnings for topcoded individuals with similar characteristics.

[top]
OINCWAGE ($) OINCBUS ($) OINCFARM ($) INCLONGJ ($)
Characteristics WS-VAL SE-VAL FRM-VAL ERN-VAL
M,NBH,FTYR 409,068 67,527 120,846 61,670
M,NBH,OTH 377,332 63,860 78,224 59,646*
M,B,FTYR 418,365 59,900 135,215* 59,646*
M,B,OTH 382,500 87,422* 135,215* --
M,H,FTYR 415,929 54,534 135,215* --
M,H,OTH 326,011* 94,470 -- --
F,NBH,FTYR 433,605 62,705 122,432 34,352
F,NBH,OTH 427,220 77,677 135,215* 35,673
F,B,FTYR 566,972 40,348 -- --
F,B,OTH 326,011* 57,017 -- 59,646*
F,H,FTYR 493,804 87,422* 135,215* --
F,H,OTH 567,699 87,422* 135,215* --

Characteristics Definitions

2011 Income Topcodes/Swap Values

All income values greater than or equal to the swap value were systematically swapped with other topcoded cases, within a bounded interval.

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes/Swap Values ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 66,000
INCASIST FIN-VAL 30,000
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 21,000
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 48,000
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 -
INCEDUC ED-VAL 30,000
INCIDIVD DIV-VAL 20,000
INCINT INT-VAL 24,000
INCOTHER OI-VAL 30,000
INCRENT RNT-VAL 50,000
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 64,000
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 -
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 57,600
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 -
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 250,000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 60,000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 30,000
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 47,000

2012 Income Topcodes/Swap Values

All income values greater than or equal to the swap value were systematically swapped with other topcoded cases, within a bounded interval.

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes/Swap Values ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 96,000
INCASIST FIN-VAL 36,000
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 18,300
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 44,000
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 -
INCEDUC ED-VAL 25,000
INCIDIVD DIV-VAL 20,000
INCINT INT-VAL 22,000
INCOTHER OI-VAL 31,200
INCRENT RNT-VAL 60,000
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 67,000
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 67,000
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 75,000
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 -
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL $250,000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 60,000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 40,000
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 50,000

2013 Income Topcodes/Swap Values

All income values greater than or equal to the swap value were systematically swapped with other topcoded cases, within a bounded interval.

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes/Swap Values ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 96,000
INCASIST FIN-VAL 50,000
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 18,400
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 48,000
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 -
INCEDUC ED-VAL 30,000
INCIDIVD DIV-VAL 25,300
INCINT INT-VAL 23,800
INCOTHER OI-VAL 29,000
INCRENT RNT-VAL 60,000
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 63,000
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 63,000
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 62,300
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 62,300
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL $250,000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 75,000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 35,000
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 50,000

2014 Income Topcodes/Swap Values

All income values greater than or equal to the swap value were systematically swapped with other topcoded cases, within a bounded interval.

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes/Swap Values ($)
INCALIM ALM-VAL 70,000
INCASIST FIN-VAL 36,000
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 19,500
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 58,600
INCDISA2 DIS-VAL2 -
INCEDUC ED-VAL 30,000
INCIDIVD DIV-VAL 35,000
INCINT INT-VAL 30,000
INCOTHER OI-VAL 30,000
INCRENT RNT-VAL 50,000
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 67,200
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 67,200
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 50,000
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 -
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 250,000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 54,000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 24,000
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 46,000

2015 Income Topcodes/Swap Values

All income values greater than or equal to the swap value were systematically swapped with other topcoded cases, within a bounded interval.

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes/Swap Values ($)
INCASIST FIN-VAL 40,000
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 17,000
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 48,000
INCEDUC ED-VAL 36,000
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 24,000
INCINT INT-VAL 50,000
INCOTHER OI-VAL 40,000
INCRENT RNT-VAL 60,000
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 66,000
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 66,000
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 67,000
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 80,000
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 280,000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 100,000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 40,000
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 56,000

2016 Income Topcodes/Swap Values

All income values greater than or equal to the swap value were systematically swapped with other topcoded cases, within a bounded interval.

[top]
IPUMS Variable CPS Variable Topcodes/Swap Values ($)
INCASIST FIN-VAL 40,000
INCCHILD CSP-VAL 18,200
INCDISA1 DIS-VAL1 51,600
INCEDUC ED-VAL 30,000
INCDIVID DIV-VAL 24,000
INCINT INT-VAL 33,873
INCOTHER OI-VAL 41,952
INCRENT RNT-VAL 50,000
INCRETI1 RET-VAL1 70,000
INCRETI2 RET-VAL2 70,000
INCSURV1 SUR-VAL1 99,999
INCSURV2 SUR-VAL2 99,999
INCLONGJ ERN-VAL 300,000
OINCBUS SE-VAL 100,000
OINCFARM FRM-VAL 50,000
OINCWAGE WS-VAL 55,000

Characteristics Definitions

M=Male

F=Female

NBH=Not Black, Not Hispanic

B=Black

H=Hispanic

FTYR=Full Year (50+ weeks), Full Time (35+ hours per week)

OTH=Not Full Year, Full Time