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9999999 = N.I.U. (Not in Universe).

The Census Bureau applies different disclosure avoidance measures across time for individuals with high income in this variable. Detailed explanations of these methods, topcodes, and replacement value and swap value thresholds are available here.


INCRENT indicates how much pre-tax income (if any) the respondent received from rent (after expenses), from charges to roomers or boarders, and from money paid by estates, trusts, and royalties, during the previous calendar year.

Amounts are expressed as they were reported to the interviewer; users must adjust for inflation using Consumer Price Index adjustment factors.


Apart from the effects of inflation, INCRENT is consistent from 1988 onward.

The income sources included in INCRENT were incorporated in the following variables prior to 1988: INCUNERN (1962-1967), INCIDR (1968-1975), and INCDRT (1976-1987).

INCDRT is equivalent to the sum of INCDIVID and INCRENT. INCIDR is equivalent to the sum of INCINT and INCDRT (for 1976-1987), and to the sum of INCINT, INCDIVID, and INCRENT (for 1988-2004). Users who chose to combine these variables should keep in mind that the minimum age of respondents rose from 14 to 15 beginning in 1980.

Comparability with IPUMS-USA

The IPUMS-USA variable INCINVST is the closest equivalent to the IPUMS-CPS variable INCRENT. Available for the 1980, 1990, and 2000 censuses, INCINVST covers income from interest as well as income from dividends, rents, royalties, trusts, and estates. To replicate the value of INCINVST using IPUMS-CPS variables, researchers should sum the values of INCDRT and INCINT for the period from 1976 to 1987. The sum of INCRENT, INCDIVID, and INCINT in IPUMS-CPS is approximately equivalent to INCINVST for 1988 onward.


  • Persons age 15+.


Years Jan Feb ASEC Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1988 – 2023 - - X - - - - - - - - -



Unharmonized Variables