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Income from assistance


9999999 = N.I.U. (Not in Universe).

The Census Bureau applies different disclosure avoidance measures across time for individuals with high income in this variable. Detailed explanations of these methods, topcodes, and replacement value and swap value thresholds are available here.


INCASIST indicates how much pre-tax income (if any) the respondent received during the previous calendar year from regular financial assistance from friends or relatives not living in the same household.

Amounts are expressed as they were reported to the interviewer; users must adjust for inflation using Consumer Price Index adjustment factors.


Apart from the effect of inflation, this variable is consistent for 1988 forward.

For years prior to 1988, income from financial help provided by friends and relatives living elsewhere was included in the residual categories INCUNERN (for 1962-1967) and INCALOTH (for 1968-1987).

Comparability with IPUMS-USA

In IPUMS-USA, income from financial assistance provided by non-co-resident friends and relatives is not tallied separately and was included in the residual INCOTHER (other income) variable.


  • Persons age 15+.


Years Jan Feb ASEC Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1988 – 2023 - - X - - - - - - - - -



Unharmonized Variables