Codes and Frequencies
WHYSS2 reports the second reason respondents gave for receiving Social Security payments during the previous calendar year. The first reason for receipt of such payments is reported in the complementary variable WHYSS1.
Interviewers asked, "What were the reasons you were getting Social Security?," checked off all applicable answers on the form, and elicited further answers with the probe, "Any other reason?" Many recipients of Social Security income received such payments for only one reason (reported in WHYSS1), and these individuals are coded as Not in Universe (code 0) in WHYSS2. For individuals who reported receiving Social Security payments for more than one reason (e.g., on the basis of both disability and widowhood), the second reason given is recorded in WHYSS2.
Respondents were to report Social Security payments that they themselves received as beneficiaries and Social Security payments that they received on behalf of a child beneficiary. When interpreting the value labels, users should keep in mind the two meanings of "child" in this context. Beginning in 1980, the ASEC CPS defined as a "child" anyone under age 15; persons age 15 and older were considered "adults" by the survey and were asked questions about their employment and own income. (Prior to 1980, persons under age 14 were considered "children" in terms of the survey universe for work and income questions.) By contrast, government programs such as Social Security generally use the more common definition of "child" to mean persons under age 18 when defining eligibility for benefits. Thus, the value label "Surviving child" (corresponding to code 5) covers reporting of one's own benefits by persons who qualify for benefits as "children" under Social Security's eligibility rules (i.e., they are unmarried and under age 18 or are unmarried, under age 19, and attending secondary school full-time) but who are "adults" in terms of the CPS definition (i.e., they have passed their 15th birthday). The value label "On behalf of surviving, dependent, or disabled child(ren)" (corresponding to code 7) covers reporting of benefits on behalf of persons who are under age 15.
This variable is comparable over time.
For persons age 15 and older, the total amount of income received from Social Security payments during the previous calendar year is reported in INCSS. Dollar amounts for Social Security payments to a child beneficiary under age 15 (for example, dependent child benefits paid to the young child of a parent who is collecting retirement or disability payments from Social Security, or survivor benefits paid to a young child based on the earning record of a parent who has died) are included in a parent's or guardian's reported income from Social Security in INCSS.
- Persons age 15+ who reported receiving income from Social Security during the previous calendar year and who gave a first reason for receiving such payments/income.
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