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First parent's relationship to child (self-reported)

Codes and Frequencies

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PEPAR1TYP is a variable that indicates whether the respondent's first parent is a biological, step, or adoptive parent. The first parent is always the mother when the mother is present and will be male when parents are same sex. The first parent's line number is reported in PELNPAR1.

In the 2019 ASEC, the family relationship variables were revamped to improve measurement of same sex families and nontraditional family structures. As part of this restructuring, variables regarding mothers and fathers transitioned to parent 1 and parent 2. This improvement was extended to the Basic Monthly Surveys in January of 2020.


This variable is consistent in all years for which it is available.

Comparability with IPUMS-USA

No self-reported family relationship variables are available in IPUMS-USA.


  • All persons.


Years Jan Feb ASEC Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2019 - - X - - - - - - - - - -
2020 – 2023 X X X X X X X X X X X X X
2024 X X - X X X - - - - - - -



Unharmonized Variables