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Codes and Frequencies

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CITIZEN reports the citizenship status of foreign-born persons. In IPUMS-CPS, people born in the U.S., Puerto Rico, or U.S. outlying areas were excluded from the question universe. Respondents were identified as belonging to one of three groups: citizens by virtue of being born abroad to American parents; naturalized citizens; and non-citizens.


This variable is completely comparable across years.

Comparability with IPUMS-USA

The CITIZEN variable in IPUMS-CPS is completely comparable to the CITIZEN variable in the 1990-2000 censuses and the ACS in IPUMS-USA. In those samples, persons born in outlying territories were coded as NIU (not in universe because not foreign born) in IPUMS-USA, just as was done in IPUMS-CPS. There are subtle differences in the universe and codes for IPUMS-CPS and IPUMS-USA in earlier years.


  • All respondents.


Years Jan Feb ASEC Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1994 – 2023 X X X X X X X X X X X X X
2024 X X - X X X - - - - - - -


This variable has no flags.

Unharmonized Variables